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This guide is intended to provide students with online resources (grammars, dictionaries, lexica, etc.) in the various ancient languages required for theological and biblical studies. Because many publishers have not digitized their entire collection at this time many important works might be missing from this guide but if a digital version is available then the library will attempt to procure it.
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Greek-English Lexicon (The Great Scott)
This is the standard classical Greek lexicon used by classicists. This is not the best lexicon for NT Greek but when translating anything written prior to the NT and the LXX this should be consulted. There are an abridged version of this lexicon referred to as the Middle Liddell which can be found HERE
A Patristic Greek Lexicon
This is a specialty Greek lexicon focused on the works after the NT. As a specialty dictionary, it will not have common words in it but words or definitions that are specific to the Patristic corpus.
Beginning Biblical Hebrew by Achieving the right balance of amount of information, style of presentation, and depth of instruction in first-year grammars is no easy task. But Mark Futato has produced a grammar that, after years of testing in a number of institutions, will please many, with its concise, clear, and well-thought-out presentation of Biblical Hebrew. Because the teaching of biblical languages is in decline in many seminaries and universities, Futato takes pains to measure the amount of information presented in each chapter in a way that makes the quantity digestible, without sacrificing information that is important to retain. The book includes exercises that are drawn largely from the Hebrew Bible itself. Fourth printing, 2012.
Publication Date: 2003-06-30
A Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar by This work is intended to serve as a user-friendly and up-to-date source of information on the morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics of Biblical Hebrew verbs, nouns and other word classes (prepositions, conjunctions, adverbs, modal words, negatives, focus particles, discourse markers, interrogatives and interjections). It also contains one of the most elaborate treatments of Biblical Hebrew word order yet published in a grammar. This reference grammar will be of service to students who have completed an introductory or intermediate course in Biblical Hebrew, and also to more advanced scholars seeking to take advantage of traditional and recent descriptions of the language that go beyond the basic morphology of Biblical Hebrew.
Call Number: PJ4567 .M47 2002
Publication Date: 1999-02-01
The Cambridge Biblical Hebrew Workbook by This workbook can be used together with any elementary Biblical Hebrew grammar, by students at colleges, seminaries or universities. It applies many of the tools of modern language acquisition to make learning this classical language an active and inspiring process. Well-known Hebrew names are used as a pedagogical aid to memorising grammar and vocabulary. Original biblical texts are focused upon. The exercises are based on a stock of frequently used words which is gradually enlarged. The vocabulary and grammar learnt early on are regularly revised and reinforced in later exercises. The student is carefully guided through the exercises by means of boxed notes on key points. A key to the exercises is included. The translations provided follow the Hebrew text very closely. This workbook enables students to develop their understanding of the general systematic sound changes in Biblical Hebrew, progressively providing a stable foundation and deeper insight into the language.
Publication Date: 2012-06-05
Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar by Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar by E. Kautzsch; H. F. W. Gesenius
This is often considered the "standard" Biblical Hebrew grammar book. Though it has been updated various times it is often considered out-dated, and other grammars have arisen to take its place. However this should not be excluded from a student's reference library.
Grammatical Concepts 101 for Biblical Hebrew by In this revised edition of a proven resource, a recognized expert in biblical Hebrew provides a readable, linguistically savvy guide to navigating basic grammatical concepts. Designed to complement any standard Hebrew grammar, the book revisits English grammar in order to teach concepts that are especially relevant to Hebrew. Each chapter focuses on an individual concept, first explaining how it works in English, then illustrating it in biblical Hebrew. Abundant English and Hebrew examples illustrate each concept, most of them visually analyzed. The book's clear design and attractive layout will appeal to visual learners.
Publication Date: 2013-04-15
A Guide to Biblical Hebrew Syntax by This introduces and abridges the syntactical features of the original language of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament. Scholars have made significant progress in recent decades in understanding Biblical Hebrew syntax. Yet intermediate readers seldom have access to this progress due to the technical jargon and sometimes-obscure locations of the scholarly publications. This Guide is an intermediate-level reference grammar for Biblical Hebrew. As such, it assumes an understanding of elementary phonology and morphology, and defines and illustrates the fundamental syntactical features of Biblical Hebrew that most intermediate-level readers struggle to master. The volume divides Biblical Hebrew syntax, and to a lesser extent morphology, into four parts. The first three cover the individual words (nouns, verbs, and particles) with the goal of helping the reader move from morphological and syntactical observations to meaning and significance. The fourth section moves beyond phase-level phenomena and considers the larger relationships of clauses and sentences.
Publication Date: 2012-06-05
Hebrew Grammar by Quick-reference summary to the basics of Hebrew Grammar.
Publication Date: 2007-07-16
Oath Formulas in Biblical Hebrew by The eponymous protagonist of the biblical story of Ruth, a Moabite widow, is so desperate to follow her widowed mother-in-law back to Israel that she swears an oath. Regardless of the translation one may choose, the sense is the same: Ruth promises to stick by Naomi's side for at least as long as they both shall live. Ruth's intention with respect to the two widows' proximity once they cross the final river is not so unanimous in the translations, however. According to the NRSV, Ruth says: (1) "May the Lord do thus and so to me, and more as well, if even death parts me from you!" The njpsv is representative of many other translations with its rendering: (2) "Thus and more may the Lord do to me if anything but death parts me from you." The difference may seem trivial, but the contradiction between the italicized phrases is total. Either death will not ultimately separate them, or it will, in Ruth's view. The issue here is not a theological one, nor is this an archaeological issue. Rather, the issue is of a linguistic nature. What does the Hebrew phrase mean? The solution to the problem is fairly straightforward. The first step is to recognize that Ruth's statement is an oath. Oaths often employ formulaic, elliptical phrases. Therefore, it is necessary to gather together in one place as many of these formulas as possible so that the patterns, tendencies, and divergences may be seen within a larger matrix. Conklin's study intriguingly compiles precisely these phrases and formulas in order to solve the mystery of interpreting Biblical Hebrew oath formulas.
Publication Date: 2011-06-30
The Routledge Introductory Course in Biblical Hebrew by The Routledge Introductory Course in Biblical Hebrew provides a comprehensive introduction to Biblical Hebrew language and texts. Combining a fresh and innovative approach with an in-depth treatment of the language, it presents the essentials of biblical grammar and vocabulary in an engaging and systematic way. Unlike other Biblical Hebrew courses, it is structured around a series of vibrant and memorable stories, with each story reinforced by grammar explanations, supportive exercises, and a concluding genuine biblical text. This coherent focus encourages students to engage with the text actively and facilitate their mastery of the language to the full. Features include: Forty units covering all the topics expected in a first-year Biblical Hebrew course, including the Hebrew writing system, pointing rules, nouns and adjectives, parsing, mastery of strong and weak verb paradigms and full attention to syntax Clear and detailed grammar explanations supported by plentiful examples An extensive assortment of varied and stimulating exercises designed to reinforce new grammar and develop students¿ ability to use Biblical Hebrew actively Incorporation of a wide range of genuine biblical texts to familiarise students with the main biblical narrative cycles and to equip them with the ability to read authentic material from the earliest stages of learning A free companion website (www.routledge.com/cw/kahn) offering a wealth of additional instructor and student resources, including many extra exercises and biblical texts, flashcards to test knowledge, a vocabulary guide listing words by part of speech, a full answer key, translations of all the stories and biblical texts, a sample syllabus, coursework assignments covering the entire contents of the course and audio recordings of the stories and biblical texts Coherent chapter organisation to consolidate and reinforce learning consistently at each step of the course Grammar summary, two-way glossary and subject index presented at the back of the book for easy access A user-friendly text design with original illustrations and clear presentation of the Hebrew script Written by an experienced instructor and extensively trialled at UCL, The Routledge Introductory Course in Biblical Hebrew will be an essential resource for all students beginning to learn Biblical Hebrew.
Publication Date: 2013-12-13
The Verb and the Paragraph in Biblical Hebrew by "Research on the function and semantics of the verbal system in Hebrew (and Semitics in general) has been in constant ferment since McFall's 1982 work The Enigma of the Hebrew Verbal System. Elizabeth Robar's analysis provides the best solution to this point, combining cognitive linguistics, cross-linguistics, diachronic and synchronic analysis. Her solution is brilliant, innovative, and supremely satisfying in interpreting all the data with great explanatory power. Let us hope this research will be quickly implemented in grammars of Hebrew." Peter J. Gentry, Donald L. Williams Professor of Old Testament Interpretation, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, KY. In The Verb and the Paragraph in Biblical Hebrew, Elizabeth Robar employs cognitive linguistics to unravel the notorious grammatical quandary in biblical Hebrew: explaining the waw consecutive, as well as other poorly understood verbal forms (e.g. with paragogic suffixes). She explains that languages must communicate the shape of thought units: including the prototypical paragraph, with its beginning, middle and ending; and its message. She demonstrates how the waw consecutive is both simpler and more nuanced than often argued. It neither foregrounds nor is a preterite, but it enables highly embedded textual structures. She also shows how allegedly anomalous forms may be used for thematic purposes, guiding the reader to the author's intended interpretation for the text as it stands.
Publication Date: 2014-09-22
Williams' Hebrew Syntax by Although the morphology and lexicon of Hebrew are reasonably well understood, its syntax has long been a neglected area of study. Syntax, the relationship of words to one another, forms, together with morphology, the material of grammar. Its relative importance varies according to the language considered. This is particularly true of word order, for when an inflected language loses its case endings, word order assumes many of the functions of the former cases. This outline by Professor Williams re-emphasizes the significance of word order in Hebrew. Developed over fifteen years in a formal course on Hebrew syntax at the University of Toronto, it treats the syntax of the noun, the verb, particles and clauses, with a selection of illustrative examples. Its contents are based on classical Hebrew prose, but some account is also taken of the deviations in later prose and poetry. In this new edition English translations have been provided for all Hebrew phrases and sentences, and the bibliography has been expanded.
Publication Date: 2007-06-16
Word Order in the Biblical Hebrew Finite Clause by Over the last 40 years, the study of word-order variation has become a prominent and fruitful field of research. Researchers of linguistic typology have found that every language permits a variety of word-order constructions, with subject, verb, and objects occupying varying positions relative to each other. It is frequently possible to classify one of the word orders as the basic or unmarked order and the others as marked. Moshavi's study investigates word order in the finite nonsubordinate clause in classical Biblical Hebrew. A common marked construction in this type of clause is the preposing construction, in which a subject, object, or adverbial is placed before the verb. In this work, Moshavi formally distinguishes preposing from other marked and unmarked constructions and explores the distribution of these constructions in Biblical Hebrew. She carries out a contextual analysis of a sample (the book of Genesis) of preposed clauses in order to determine the pragmatic functions that preposing may express. Moshavi's thesis is that the majority of preposed clauses can be classified as one of two syntactic-pragmatic constructions: focusing or topicalization. This meticulous yet approachable study will be useful both to students of Biblical Hebrew and to persons doing general study of syntax, especially those interested in the connection between linguistic form and pragmatic meaning.
Publication Date: 2010-06-30
Brown, Driver, and Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament by This is one of the older Hebrew dictionaries (although still the standard for many scholars) and because of that has some peculiarities that other dictionaries do not have. The main difference between this and other dictionaries is that it is arranged based upon the triliteral root system, which can make it frustrating to find words if you are not familiar with this system, but can be very useful because it places all the words with a certain triliteral root together.
A Concise Lexicon of Late Biblical Hebrew by The eighty lexical entries exemplify a diachronic investigation of Late Biblical Hebrew, which reflects the transition period from the Hebrew Bible to Talmudic literature. Together with relevant bibliography for each entry, the Lexicon serves as an indispensable tool for understanding the emergence and development of Late Biblical Hebrew neologisms.
Publication Date: 2014-05-01
Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics by The Hebrew language has one of the longest attested histories of any of the world's languages, with records of its use from antiquity until modern times. Although it ceased to be a spoken language by the 2nd century C.E., Hebrew continued to be used and to develop in the form of a literary and liturgical language until its revival as a vernacular in the 20th century. In a four volume set, complete with index, the Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics offers a systematic and comprehensive treatment of all aspects of the history and study of the Hebrew language from its earliest attested form to the present day. The encyclopedia contains overview articles that provide a readable synopsis of current knowledge of the major periods and varieties of the Hebrew language as well as thematically-organized entries which provide further information on individual topics, such as the Hebrew of various sources (texts, manuscripts, inscriptions, reading traditions), major grammatical features (phonology, morphology, and syntax), lexicon, script and paleography, theoretical linguistic approaches, and so forth. With over 950 entries and approximately 400 contributing scholars, the Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics is the authoritative reference work for students and researchers in the fields of Hebrew linguistics, general linguistics, Biblical studies, Hebrew and Jewish literature, and related fields. The online version of the EHLL can be found here.
Publication Date: 2013-08-09
RETROGRADE HEBREW AND ARAMAIC DICTIONARY by This volume provides scholars with a singular device for the reconstruction and decipherment of Jewish ancient and rabbinic manuscripts, as well as inscriptions. How to reconstruct what broke away? Which word was once attested where only few characters are left? Questions like these emerge from working on ancient texts, for example the scrolls of Qumran, and can be solved with the dictionary presented. All the words of the retrograde dictionary are arranged alphabetically, beginning with the last letter up to the first. The dictionary does not add translations or meanings of words in any language. This retrograde dictionary takes into account all the ancient Hebrew and Aramaic texts in form of scriptures, scrolls, seals, ossuaries and documents reported in Palestine and dating up to 135 A.D, as well as the Words of Ahikar and other texts from the island of Elephantine. Karl Georg Kuhn was the first to compile the vocabulary of ancient Hebrew in reversed form in 1958. But Kuhn knew only a small part of the Dead Sea Scrolls and did not recognize any other Hebrew or Aramaic texts except for the Qumran manuscripts and the texts of the Hebrew Bible. Therefore, Kuhn's retrograde dictionary is limited in its extent and outdated by the many texts published in the last 50 years. Now, the Retrograde Hebrew and Aramaic Dictionary offers an updated list of Kuhn's Hebrew Lemm0ata, and in addition an independent Aramaic section as well as an appendix, presenting the Elephantine Papyri, including the Words of Ahikar. It does not only contain the vocabulary of manuscripts and scrolls, but also of various inscriptions from the mentioned period.
Publication Date: 2010-08-05